Did you dream of a fox last night? Are you wondering what this dream means? You must be experiencing one of many emotions. In other words, it is natural to feel upset, betrayed, irritated, confused, unhappy, and even manipulative upon awakening.
Foxes are known for their slyness as well as cleverness. Meanings of dreams about foxes are somewhat dependent on the traits of this agile animal. Apart from that, much like most dreams, their interpretations rely on your waking life.
Summary in Infographics
Fox Dream Meaning – General Interpretation
Dreams about fox overall refer to the possession and demonstration of quick wit, intelligence, and wisdom. Besides this, these dreams represent manipulation and a desire to be alone.
1. Wisdom and Knowledge
Dreaming of a fox is a good sign when it reflects your wisdom and knowledge. It is prompting you to put your expertise and abilities in a way that genuinely benefits you.
You have the power to approach a challenging situation smartly. So, do not hold yourself back. Instead, trust your capability and display it to the world!
2. Deception or Betrayal
A dream about foxes can connote betrayal. Depending on how it relates to your waking life, you can understand if it is you deceiving someone important to you, such as a close friend, family member, coworker, partner, or the other way around.
Ask yourself if you have been involved in some form of fraud, directly or indirectly. If yes, reassess your situation and try getting out of it. Basically, this dream is prompting you to either stop your unlawful behavior or stay vigilant.
3. Lone Wolf
This small-sized dog in your dream symbolizes the desire to be alone. You are self-sufficient and comfortable being by yourself.
Such a characteristic may be advantageous as it denotes independence. On the flip side, you may simply be pushing away people who care for you and want the best for you. Try to find a balance in a way that you can satisfy your preference without losing loved ones.
Dream of Fox – 60 Scenarios and Their Meanings
Various details, such as the activity of the fox, where you see it, and even its color, play a role in dream interpretation.
Outlined below is an extensive account of various dream symbols based on the above-mentioned factors.
1. Seeing a fox in your dream
This dream signifies the ability to predict things with fair accuracy using your knowledge and skills. Therefore, it is a good sign if you dream of seeing a fox. It shows that you can prepare yourself for problems that may arise.
With that said, this dream can also be a bad sign in that it denotes infidelity. If you are in a romantic relationship, there is a slight chance that your partner is deceiving you in some way. It is best to talk to them instead of jumping to conclusions.
2. Dream of fox biting you
This dream can gnaw at you, and rightfully so. It represents the realization that you care for integrity and image much more than the success you have been running after. What matters to you is brought into focus.
You have been so preoccupied with financial matters and accomplishments that you ignored unjust behaviors. This dream will allow you to realign your priorities so you can take the necessary steps.
3. Dream about a fox biting other people
If the fox is biting someone else in your dream, it is a sign that you will get through your problems as time passes. All along, you were convinced of your ability to predict issues. Now, you realize that life is mostly unpredictable and you cannot foresee everything.
This awareness will help you become more equipped to deal with problems as they arise instead of worrying unnecessarily.
4. Killing a fox in your dream
A rather bloody dream, is it not? However, the meaning is on the contrary, as it connotes the lack of a need to be afraid. You no longer have enemies or people out to get you.
Another interpretation involves one of insight. You probably figured out the solution to a problem that has been niggling at the back of your mind for a while now.
5. Dreaming of a fox passing you in your dream
A dream about a fax passing you shows that you are approaching something threatening in your waking life. You may be surrounded by people who are not fond of you, so you must stay cautious.
6. Friendly fox in your dream
If the fox was being friendly in your dream, it points toward the beginning of a short romance with someone!
7. Pack of foxes in your dream
If you saw foxes roaming around in packs in your dream, it is a note of caution. Keep your eyes open for ill-intentioned people, as they can damage your professional or personal life.
For instance, they may feed lies to your partner for the sole purpose of hurting you. You must stay cautious.
8. Fox attacking me in my dream
This dream is not a good sign. It reveals that your rivals seek to use their skills in a way to bring you down. They wish to surpass you.
You need to trust and look after yourself because your competitors do not care if your image gets ruined. Be proactive and learn ways to retaliate smartly.
9. Dream about a fox attacking others
A fox attacking other people in your dream predicts the help that you will be offering someone who is unsure about what they want. You are worried about someone close to you as you feel they have been behaving a bit strangely of late.
Also, you have noticed their unusual indifference and reclusive nature. This uncharacteristic behavior is urging you to lend a hand, but you have a tough time getting there. They are uncooperative and you feel helpless.
10. Dreaming of a fox chasing you
If a fox is chasing you in your dream, it suggests avoidance. Are you trying to run away from something or someone in your waking life? Remember that you can only run so far before your problems catch up to you. Find out other ways to tackle your issues.
This dream reveals that you are deeply bothered by this event or person. What can you do to help yourself in an adaptive way? Try brainstorming solutions until you can narrow down the most effective one.
11. Dreaming of chasing a fox
If you were doing the chasing in your dream, it shows a lack of acceptance toward a specific event or circumstance in your waking life.
This dream could also reveal that some people are lying to you. It is urging you to be careful about whom you trust in life. This interpretation commonly applies to those who identify as women.
12. Dream about a fox being chased
If you see another animal hunting down a fox or if you are the fox being chased, it shows a dissociation with reality. You are feeling disconnected and confused in your waking life. Moreover, you feel stuck or trapped, like the walls are caving in on you.
Keep in mind that there are many times a fox finds a way to escape its predator. Therefore, you will find a solution so long as you put your mind to it, just the way a fox does to escape its predicament.
13. Dreaming of a fox running
This dream calls attention to competitors in your life. It also reveals the dual nature of the personality of someone close to you.
Together, they are possibly plotting something against you and it is possible that you will fall prey to their deceit. So, stay careful over whom you talk to about personal and important things.
14. Dreaming of a fox going up a tree
If this sly animal is ascending a tree in your dream, it represents an opportunity to utilize your wisdom and intelligence. You are a logical and rational person, which helps you learn various concepts quickly.
These characteristics, along with your curious personality, allow you to reach incredible heights provided you recognize and make use of the same.
15. Dream about turning into a fox
According to dream symbolism, dreaming of becoming a fox shows that you are likely to lie in the near future. Fox represents cunningness in many cases, so it is unsurprising that this dream is interpreted as your embodying dishonesty.
16. Fighting with a fox dream meaning
If you fought with a fox in your dream, it shows that you are likely to be self-sufficient. You dislike relying on others for anything. It also represents a re-assessment of your objectives.
Additionally, it reveals that someone in your life is not to be trusted. They are plotting against you and are out to torture you one way or the other. This dream will not reveal their means of attack, so you need to stay cautious of people likely to have ill intentions.
17. Coming across a fox dream
If you came across a fox out of the blue in your dream, it is a positive omen. This dream represents unforeseen benefits. Such gains are typically associated with financial ones, which you will acquire through strange means, like gambling or lottery.
18. Dream about a fox gazing in your direction
A fox staring at you in your dream shows that there is likely to be a situation that would dictate you to act like a fox.
More specifically, you need to be resourceful, calculating, and crafty. This dream is making you realize you can overcome any obstacle you encounter in your waking life.
19. Hunting a fox in your dream
If you dreamed of hunting a fox, it is not a positive omen. There is a chance that you are engaging in some illicit activity, directly or otherwise.
Be careful, particularly relating to financial matters. Take some time to assess your situation and do not act impulsively, as it could cost you a lot.
20. Dream about fox-hunting on horses
This dream symbolizes the readiness for confrontation, specifically regarding those who are likely to manipulate you. It shows that you are prepared to face them and prevent them from bringing you down.
21. Trailing a fox using its paw prints
If you were pursuing a fox by means of its paw prints in your dream, it is a note of caution. You are likely to partake in activities that are immoral and unethical, possibly even indirectly. Stay cautious of people you do not know or
22. A fox running away dream
Suppose this agile being is running away in your dream. It shows that some opportunities are likely to escape you if you do not pay attention and grab them immediately. Sharpen your skills to ensure that you do not let go of any favorable chance.
You possess the knowledge and awareness to do it. However, at times when you need to draw on these aspects, you tend to ignore them, thereby missing out on golden
opportunities. So, consider this dream is preparing you for the future.
23. Dreaming of playing with a fox
Historically, this dream meant danger in waking life. Nowadays, a dream about playing with a fox is also interpreted as one where you have a more idealized perception of yourself.
Moreover, this dream is associated with a strong sense of imagination, success, and determination.
Have you been overworking yourself? It seems so because another interpretation is that this dream is asking you to slow down in life. You are painfully stressed out, so you need to find ways to channel this tension.
24. Dream about feeding a fox
To dream of feeding a fox means that you are feeding lies to those around you in real life. There is a possibility that you will give advice to someone. This piece of guidance is not backed by anything substantial, so it could do more harm than good to the one offered.
25. Dreaming of someone else feeding a fox
Seeing someone else feed a fox shows that you must put on your guard around this person in your waking life. They have the ability to coax you into doing anything for them.
You are likely to fall prey to their schemes because of their silver tongue. They will break your trust just as easily, though.
26. Fostering a fox dream
To dream of saving a fox and caring for it shows the side of you that is willing to make sacrifices or put yourself in danger. These impulsive actions worry people who love and care about you.
This interpretation possibly comes of no surprise to you as your loved ones often request you to not act so recklessly.
A dream about fostering a fox is typically a wake-up call. You need to understand why you act in ways that threaten your safety before something irreversible or unsalvageable happens.
27. Dream about fox cleaning itself
This dream represents inconsequential inconveniences, possibly symbolizing someone who irritates you on the regular. It also stands for someone conniving. They are possibly attempting to coax you into doing favors for them.
28. Eating a fox in your dream
This indigestible dream is not a positive omen. It symbolizes misunderstandings and conflicts with someone you love. Moreover, it reveals the potential death of the relationship with said person.
29. Fox dropping its prey in your dream
If the fox in your dream loses its prey, it is a bad omen. It is suggestive of a potential threat, mostly owing to someone who is envious of you and your growth. This dream also represents the predicament you are in currently.
30. Lounging in the fox’s den in your dream
This dream suggests naïvety in that you allow people into your life too quickly. Such an event happens even in situations where there are red flags screaming at you, advising you against it.
The lines between niceness and gullibility are blurred in your case. You tend to give people too many chances and find ways to excuse their bad behaviors.
31. Someone else in a fox den dream
If you see someone else hiding in a burrow, it refers to suspicion. You are unsure if your partner or friend is being honest with you.
There is a nagging feeling wherein you doubt if your relationship is based on reciprocal honesty, commitment, genuineness, and respect. You feel the person is with you for selfish reasons.
32. Fox in your house dream
This dream is typically a bad sign, as it represents deceit and dishonesty. Someone will enter your life under the pretense of helping you but does not intend to do so.
If you do not want your safety to be threatened, you need to be more cautious about whom you are letting into your home and life. Do not let your naïvety get the better of you.
33. Fox in your yard dream
If in your dream you came across a fox in your yard, it symbolizes the competitors from your waking life. It represents the possibility of your rivals pouncing at an opportunity to take you down just the way foxes wait to prey on small animals.
If they succeed in their malicious plan, it will tarnish your reputation. People may stop trusting you for no fault of yours.
Suppose the fox succeeded in injuring your pets in your dream. Then, you are likely to find it challenging to avoid the problem in real life. However, if you manage to ward off the fox, you have a chance to escape the unpleasant event.
34. Fox in water dream
This dream is related to a sense of understanding of other people’s emotions. You are unable to lie to people, and you realize that it is better to form relationships founded on mutual trust.
35. Dream about a fox on your bed
A bed typically embodies romance, while a fox represents a competitor. So, seeing a fox occupying that piece of furniture in your dream symbolizes having to fight with someone else over your romantic interest.
There may come a time when you will have to resort to methods you generally disapprove of, just to retake your power. You will be pushed to assert your supremacy.
Fox Dream Meaning as per Color of the Fox
36. Dreams about red foxes
A red or reddish brown fox in your dream is a symbol of betrayal by someone close to you. This person is conniving and sly, just like a fox, and is capable of doing something totally unexpected and cruel. If you do not stay vigilant, they will exploit you.
37. Blue fox dream
This dream is a sign that you are trying to find your soulmate. It shows an openness toward love and affection. You are willing to commit yourself to something serious.
38. Brown fox in your dream
A brown fox in your dream indicates a great ability to adapt to situations. You are flexible in social settings and find ways to fit in well. A people pleaser, aren’t you?
39. Black fox dream
A black fox in your dream is an evil omen, as it predicts a major expense that will prove to be fruitless. You will make this purchase hoping to obtain intense joy and wealth. However, what you gain from this possession will pale in comparison to your expectations.
40. Dream about a white fox
Dreaming of white foxes indicates betrayal, specifically by someone from your family or social circle. Be warned.
41. Pink fox dream meaning
A pink fox in your dream is a request to be aware of your surroundings. You are likely to have your heart broken by someone who is not genuine with you.
42. Dreaming of a silver fox
A silver fox in your dream is not a good sign, as it is associated with harmful temptations. You are likely to be lured toward something that is detrimental, especially in the long run. Do not make decisions impulsively as they come at a cost.
43. Golden fox dream
According to dream symbolism, a golden fox suggests seemingly golden opportunities. These openings appear great, but they involve controversial activities. You will be pushed to work in the grey spaces of law.
With that said, if you are successful in accomplishing this ethically, you will be heavily rewarded!
Fox Dream Meaning Based on their Characteristics
44. Dreaming of a fox man
A human being with a fox head is strange, even for a dream. This dream is forewarning you of an ill-intentioned person pretending to help you through something.
The person in question is deft at concealing their motives and if you let them into your life, it will lead to suffering. Do not let your guard down easily around new people.
45. Dreaming of a fox’s tail
From a superstitious perspective, people used to hang the tail of a fox on their door after a hunt for luck. Adding to that, foxes’ tails were hung around the neck of babies to protect them. Likewise, they used to place the tail on a horse’s head to ward off the evil eye.
Keeping these superstitious practices in mind, dreams about foxes’ tails, in general, represent protection. Specifically, a bushy fox’s tail symbolizes determination and zeal for success. A bushy tail in itself represents a person you dislike. Holding a tail is a sign of financial loss.
46. Dream about a fox’s eyes
To dream about a fox’s eyes indicates luck and opportunities. You are starting to pay more attention to the world around you, including the needs of people.
47. Dream about the fur of a fox
To see fox fur while asleep is typically a good omen. It connotes wealth and happiness, along with the possibility of engaging in activities that bring you much joy! Additionally, scruffy-looking fur is a symbol of powerless competitors. Overall, it is an optimistic dream.
48. Dreaming of a beautiful fox
This dream is associated with the beauty of other people. It also represents infatuation and attraction toward someone based on their physical appearance.
49. Dream about a fox that is sick
If the fox in your dream is suffering from an illness, it is possible that people are perceiving you as no longer powerful.
For example, have your kids not been taking your authoritativeness seriously? Or are people being insubordinate at your workplace? It is possible that your reputation is on the line and you need to do something about it.
50. Dreaming of a rabid fox
This dream reveals your involvement in some illegal activity or fraud. Beware as you are likely to make a major mistake, which will cost you heavily. There is a significant chance you will get caught.
51. Injured fox dream meaning
Fox, known for its sly personality, usually symbolizes your competitors in your dreams. Therefore, a dream in which the fox is injured shows that your rivals cannot harm you right now. Make use of this time and execute your plans fearlessly!
If the fox is one-legged, it represents abnormality, unpredictability, and unclear thoughts, predominantly regarding your future.
52. A dream about a dead fox
If the fox you see in your dream is dead, it shows that you will surpass manipulators. There is somebody around you who is willing to do whatever it takes to accomplish his goals, and this is likely to cost you.
However, you will figure out their identity and plan, which will help you stay ahead of them. Use your wit and you will stay safe.
53. Fox posing dead dream
If the fox is pretending to not be alive in your dream, it is a negative omen. This dream is telling you that a rival or someone with great power is lurking in the dark, waiting for you to show weakness so they can attack.
It shows that this person is watching your moves and noting down your shortcomings. They wish to use the same against you. Therefore, stay vigilant, specifically around those who are likely to have ulterior motives when it comes to you.
54. A fox kit in your dream
A fox kit, commonly known as a cub in your dream, symbolizes misinformation, but to a smaller degree. It is a sign of rumors being spread about you in your life by someone with the intention of staining your reputation. Try clearing the air in any way possible.
Alternatively, this dream is a good omen and indicates that you are nearing a golden opportunity. Do not miss it! Keep your eyes open for anything that could prevent you from achieving this feat.
With that said, keep it clear and straightforward. Do not overcomplicate anything, as simplicity is often the most important tool to succeeding in life, personal or professional.
55. Dream about mother fox with cubs
This dream is heavily dependent on your waking life. It is a good omen if you recently undertook a project. You will start reaping the benefits for your efforts and the task will be profitable for you.
On the other hand, this dream suggests the existence of someone nefarious, carefully planning their attack against you. If you are involved in conflicts with your competitors in real life, it is best you remain on guard and use your wit when you have to.
56. Dream of an obedient fox
Such a dream reveals that if you were to go in search of love, you will find it. With that said, it will not be smooth-sailing as some discomfort will be involved. Your love could be unrequited initially.
However, it does not mean you have lost everything. Take some time to think it over and you will find a solution to this situation.
Alternatively, if you are already romantically involved, it shows that someone else might enter your partner’s life. To make it worse, they will be drawn to this person. Be proactive and ensure you communicate well with your partner instead of acting on assumptions.
57. Dream about a pet fox
If you dreamed of having a pet fox, it is a bad sign. Have you employed a house help, gardener, employee, or someone along these lines lately? If yes, there is a slight chance that they will betray you in the near future.
Additionally, if they succeed in their deceitful act, you will have to expend a significant amount of resources. You may have to draw on your money, time, and energy to make up for your losses.
58. Dreaming of a talking fox
This dream is an ominous one, as it suggests that someone you trust dearly is lying to you or deceiving you in some way. Try to recount the exact words of the fox in your dream.
Doing so will let you associate this dream with your personal life more accurately. You will have a chance to identify whom this fox represents and take appropriate steps to handle the situation or protect yourself.
59. Defecating fox dream
A fox defecating in your dream symbolizes a messy situation that you have to take care of immediately. It could also mean that people are feeding you lies. So, stay cautious and learn not to take what people say at face value. Also, remember to guard yourself against rumors.
60. Caged fox dream
This dream signifies your competitors having no power over you. They cannot harm you in any way at the moment. Basically, dreaming of a caged fox indicates professional progress, so act now on your unfulfilled goals! It also represents the luck of gamblers.
Biblical Meaning of Fox in a Dream
The biblical meaning of a dream about a fox entails trickery, deceit, and a desire for someone to wrong you.
In the Bible, there is a mention of foxes in a few verses, including the ones outlined below.
“Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines have tender grapes.”Song of Solomon 2:15
“O Israel, thy prophets are like the foxes of the deserts.”Ezekiel 13:4
“He replied, “Go tell that fox, ‘I will keep on driving out demons and healing people today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will reach my goal.’”Luke 13:32
Here, the Lord is asking you to recognize the foxes or cunning people that surround you and cut ties with them. You are a part of unhealthy and damaging relationships. These connections often end in heartbreak, failure, stress, and disappointment.
A few people in your life are doing more harm than good. Do not underestimate anyone as they will use their intelligence to deceive you. They have the ability to outplay you.
Moreover, the mention of “little foxes” indicates that you often let the small things slide. These often-overlooked bits add up and ruin things that matter to you.
Therefore, take this dream as a wake-up call. Run your network through a fine comb and find out if people have intentions to harm you. Take precautionary steps so that you do not end up distressed.
Dream About Fox – Psychological Interpretation
Dreams about foxes have psychological meanings of mental abilities and their usage, self-awareness, egocentrism, and synchronicity.
An overall psychological perspective of fox dreams involves mental faculties and using the same swiftly. These dreams can have positive or negative connotations based on the usage of these psychological abilities.
If one uses their intelligence to become more self-aware and improve their emotional well-being, the dream is a positive one. On the other hand, if they use it to fulfill egocentric objectives, a dream about a fox is a bad sign.
Foxes, and even coyotes, are symbols of tricksters. Therefore, psychoanalytically, the dream represents humor as a defense mechanism.
According to the Jungian school of thought, fox dreams can be interpreted in terms of synchronicity. Jung’s letter to the founder of parapsychology, Joseph B. Rhine, details the dream of a woman of a ghostly fox.
Right after she narrates this dream, a real fox appears from within the woods in their waking life. Such a coincidence, although uncanny, captures synchronicity. Carl Jung maintained that an overlap exists between our fantasy and real lives.
Spiritual Meaning of Dream of Fox
Spiritual perspectives on fox dreams include a heightened sense of awareness, stealth, and grace.
The first spiritual interpretation of a dream about fox is that it denotes increased awareness, especially of one’s environment. It comes as no surprise as foxes are highly perceptive of their surroundings.
Spiritually, you are attuned to your immediate setting. You are able to adapt quickly to the rhythm of your inner and outer happenings. Moreover, particularly during times of distress or unpredictability, like a fox, you are able to unravel yourself.
You act swiftly, keenly relying on your inner senses. Your problem-solving skills shine during times when you need them. Also, you do not hold back; you allow yourself to step out of your comfort zone.
Secondly, a fox dream represents stealth in that you know when to stay on guard. You have the spiritual strength to discern the right from the wrong. Your instincts do not fail you as you are so tuned to your inner self.
A dream about a fox may also be one of encouragement. It is asking you to draw on your creative energy. By doing so, you can observe your surroundings, predict your opportunities and threats, and build your life. Taking this route will aid in spiritual growth.
Finally, this dream represents internal and external grace. Just the way foxes tread with great finesse, so do you in your life. You are on the right spiritual path, and this dream serves as a reminder to amp up your agility!
Remember that you have it in you to tackle obstacles when situations demand you to take action. You are clever, just like a fox. Treat this dream as an epiphany and start paving your road to self-discovery.
Cultural Interpretations of Fox Dreams
The interpretations of fox dreams also vary depending on cultural factors. They can have a positive or negative undertone.
Here are a few interpretations of dreams about foxes according to specific cultures.
1. Ancient Culture
In most ancient folklore, predominantly in the Asian continent, foxes are symbols of transformation. In other words, they were thought to have the ability to metamorphose into the human form.
They believed that this process was restricted to the female population. Consequently, these dreams symbolized death, disorder, and devastation.
This dream also represented the feminine side of personality that was a part of everyone. People believed that this aspect let us get in touch with the divine world. With that said, if used inappropriately or with malicious intent, it can result in destruction.
2. Contemporary Culture
In the present-day culture, fox dreams refer to the act of outsmarting someone. It also symbolizes the feminine, gracious, and attractive sides of one’s personality, along with intelligence and deviousness.
3. Native American
According to certain Native American or American Indian folklore, fox dreams represent safe-keeping. They are also symbols of healing and spiritual guidance. Native Americans highly valued fox fur for its usefulness and sacred importance.
The Islamic interpretation of fox dreams involves descriptions of fraudulent individuals. Dreams about fox symbolize treachery, lies, deceit, malicious intentions, and playing tricks. On the flip side, it represents fortune-telling, profits, and even marriage.
If you saw a fox in your dream, it could also reveal that you are trying to ingratiate yourself in front of good people. Instead, if a fox was seeking your protection in your dream, it suggests a fear of jinn and spirits.
Additionally, if you dreamed of killing a fox, it reveals the exploitation of righteous women. Fighting a fox, on the other hand, represents a cheating partner. Lastly, acquiring the skin or fur of a fox in your dream is a symbol of power, success, or even financial gains.
What to Ask Yourself When You Dream of Foxes
Dreams about foxes can sometimes confuse you. Apart from the various interpretations detailed above, here are a few general questions you can ask yourself when you dream of foxes.
- Do you think someone around you is concealing their authentic emotions?
- Do you possess traits that are similar to those of foxes?
- Does this dream teach you anything?
- Does the fox resemble someone from your waking life in any way?
- How does this dream relate to your real-life situation?
Dreams about foxes can be intimidating or frightening, considering how these solitary creatures are typically associated with their cunningness. These dreams often symbolize deceit either by you or someone else.
On the more optimistic side of things, these dreams also throw light on your intelligence and problem-solving abilities. If you dream of a fox, understand how it relates to your personal life.
In a nutshell, these dreams are requesting you to stay vigilant of your actions and surroundings, or asking you to draw on your psychological abilities.
If you get dreams about Hamster then check its meaning here.
Ananya Ramesh is a mental health professional with a master’s degree in clinical psychology. She has a profound interest in producing and refining content, specifically ones related to mental health and psychology. What began as casually penning down her musings back in school has grown into a successful freelance venture. Outside of work, Ananya is constantly looking to live a more sustainable lifestyle and minimize her carbon footprint. She also enjoys reading fiction and autobiographies, cooking, exercising, and sketching portraits.